IPSA is used for a wide range of different power system analysis ranging from simple grid connection of generation projects, through to large industrial sites, through to the routine design, operations and planning of large wide-area public distribution networks. A selection of case studies and typical applications is provided below.
The FALCON project (Flexible Approaches for Low Carbon Optimised Networks) is a Western Power Distribution (WPD) project funded by the UKs Low Carbon Network Fund. FALCON aims to investigate how new 11kV network techniques work in practice and, by simulating their use in different scenarios, will determine the best ways to manage the network problems expected to arise from increased low carbon technologies and generation.
The Ipsa 2 software forms the core of the simulation tool being developed. Ipsa will model the impact of smart reinforcement techniques including Dynamic Asset Rating, Energy Storage and Demand Side Management alongside traditional reinforcement methods. Some Important Ipsa developments are required by the project which are currently underway. These include;
- Load profile or Time of Day analysis
- Reliability analysis to calculate Customer Minutes Lost and Customer Interruptions (CMLs and CIs)
- Voltage Unbalance
Distribution Network Analysis
IPSA forms the primary network design analysis tool for half the UK Distribution Network operators for the design, operation and planning analysis for their 11kV through to 132kV networks. Most operators widely use the loadflow and fault level tools as well as the harmonic analysis, transient stability and protection co-ordination. IPSA+ engines are also embedded into custom analysis tools for long-term network planning and use of system charge calculations.
Industrial System Analysis
IPSA has been used for system design compliance assessments of major oil and gas facilities including the Shell Sakhalin II LNG refinery and Exxon South Hook LNG import terminal. This included analysis of loadflow, fault level, motor starting, transient stability, harmonic analysis, harmonic filter design, and protection review and setting. All work was performed to DEP, IEC or other appropriate standards.
Wind Farm Development
IPSA is routinely used to provide grid connection studies for wind farms ranging from single turbine connections through to 300MW onshore windfarms and 1000MW offshore windfarms. These studies typically start with initial site selection and capacity studies. Grid connection studies are undertaken to identify the main equipment ratings using loadflow and fault level analysis, through to full grid code compliance studies requiring detailed transient and harmonic analysis.
IPSA is used for a number of projects requiring the application of new and novel technologies. The analysis ranges from site selection studies through to detailed loadflow, fault analysis, grid connection investigations and costing analysis for projects such as:
- HVDC links for large offshore wind farms for a number of projects in the UK and internationally.
- assessment of wave energy projects
- large energy storage plants for fast reserve and frequency response.
The analysis ranges from site selection studies through to detailed loadflow, fault analysis and grid connection investigations.